The first instance of a halbach array was introduced in 1979 by Klaus Halbach at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
He was studying the uses of rare-earth cobalt permanent magnets (PM) at the time. With this array he managed to create a nearunidirectional magnetic field, namely a dipole field, requiring no external power supply.
In the 1990s, halbach arrays were successfully used in a new generation of particle accelerators, free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation devices in the field of high energy physics.
In recent years, halbach arrays have received extensive attention in both academia and industry due to their unique advantages. More and more scientists have carried out specific research on them, and more and more fields have used them.
Halbach arrays have been found to be useful in a variety of interesting applications, ranging from singledegree of freedom (DOF) actuators, magnetic levitation, multi-DOF actuators, electro-mechanical batteries, and more efficient electric rotational machines.
Others applications of halbach arrays include:
- Magnetic refrigeration applications
- Eddy current braking for maglev trains
- Nuclear magnetic resonance equipment in the medical field
- Charged ion deflection focusing devices (e.g. magnetic lenses)
- Magnetic machines (e.g. magnetic couplers, magnetic bearings)
- Holding & fxturing: use halbach arrays magnet to hold some small parts to grind or others.
- Electrical machinery (e.g. high-speed motors, high-precision servo motors, linear motors, multiple DOF motors)